Evaluating the Need to Recognize and Measure the Reduction of Duplications in the Hospital Spaces Reform Projects using Building Information Modeling

Document Type : Original Article


1 M.Sc. Engineering and Construction Management, Department of Civil Engineering, Mehr-e- Alborz University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, School of Construction Economics and Mnagement,University of the Witwatersrand, Johanesburg, South Africa.

3 Ph.D. Candidate, Engineering and Construction Management, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran


Having so many old and burnout hospitals in third world countries is one of the major problems in the health sector. This issue besides low per capital hospital beds has led to many problems in the health department. In big cities, the possibility to provide land for the construction of alternative hospitals is very costly and non-economic and even impossible. Considering the complexities of building a new hospital, the only solution is making reforms in the hospitals through renovation or rebuilding the project. Moreover, increased general inflation and currency fluctuations in third world countries make most hospitals and medical centres into trouble, which this issue results in increased medical costs. Thus, cost savings in hospitals have a significant impact on their workflow and consequently patient satisfaction in terms of quality of services. Lack of proper implementation of hospital spaces reform projects has challenged realization of these savings. Building Information Modelling (BIM) is revolutionizing how to design and implement buildings. Moreover, it is not just a 3D tool in CAD, but it is a kind of database, which makes possible providing a wide range of information about features and relations among various sections of a building. This study aims to evaluate the need to recognize and measure the reduction of duplications in the hospital spaces reform projects using BIM, in order to make significant savings in waste of hospitals’ resources. In-depth literature review method is applied to collect proper data aiming to introduce BIM as a tool to reduce costs of hospitals’ reforms. This study helps project stakeholders in the field of health infrastructure to better understand the importance of BIM application to prevent various financial wastes in the projects and fulfil their decisions with better recognition.


1. Cutler, F. (2012). Management and Marketing. Tehran, Atropart.
2. Rice, A., and Roth, J., (2012). Marketing Strategies: Book Memorial
3. F. Shaad, (2012). Basics of planning and designing health centres.
4. Asefzadeh, S. and Rezapour, A. (2003). Hospital management and research, Qazvin: Qazvin University of medical sciences, 189-90.
5. Ziaee, F. (2012). Construction industry evolution in the third millennium.
6. Hergunsel, M. F., (2011). Benefits of building information modelling for construction managers and BIM based scheduling.
7. Eastman, C. M., Eastman, Teicholz, C. P. and Sacks, R., (2011). BIM handbook: A guide to building information modeling for owners, managers, designers, engineers and contractors: John Wiley & Sons.
8. Phiri, M., (1999). Information technology in construction design: Thomas Telford.
9. Beydokhti, A., (2014). An Introduction to the Use of Building Information Modelling in the Management of Hospital Operations.
10. Shamqoli, Gh., (2012). Basic concepts in hospital architecture.
11. Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Immune Hospital Planning and Designing Standard
12. Ministry of Health and Medical Education, www.behdasht.gov.ir
13. Asefzadeh, S., (1992). Health economics, Danesh-E Emrooz.
14. Z. S., (1993). Cost analysis for hospital care the case of Embaba hospital.
15. Chellappa, J. and Park, H. J., (2010). BIM+ healthcare: on the view of a primary healthcare renovation project, in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia/Hong Kong, 293-302.
16. Azhar, S., Nadeem, A., Mok, J. Y. and Leung, B. H., (2008). Building Information Modeling (BIM): A new paradigm for visual interactive modelling and simulation for construction projects, in Proc., First International Conference on Construction in Developing Countries, 435-446.
17. Holness, G. V., (2006). Building information modelling, ASHRAE journal, Vol.48, 38-45.
18. Wheatley, B. T. and Brown, T. W., (2007). An introduction to building information modelling, Construction Law., Vol.27, 33-41.
19. Bazargan, A. (1997), Research methods and behavioural sciences, Egge Publishing.
20. Welk, D. and Anderson, J., (2004). Quantitative vs. qualitative concepts in proposal writing, Vol.5, 30-38.
21. Hafeznia, M. (2007). Introduction to Research Method in Humanities, Samt Publishing.
22. Odeh, A. M. and Battaineh, H. T., (2002). Causes of construction delay: traditional contracts, International journal of project management, Vol. 20, 67-73.
23. Frimpong, Y., Oluwoye, J. and Crawford, L., (2003). Causes of delay and cost overruns in construction of groundwater projects in a developing countries; Ghana as a case study, International Journal of project management, Vol. 21, 321-326.
24. Khosrowshahi, F. and Arayici, Y., (2012), Roadmap for implementation of BIM in the UK construction industry, Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, Vol.19, 610-635.
25. Sweis, G., Sweis, R., Hammad, A. A. and Shboul, A., (2008). Delays in construction projects: The case of Jordan, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 26, 665-674.
26. Assaf, S. A. and Al-Hejji, S., (2006). Causes of delay in large construction projects, International journal of project management, Vol. 24, 349-357.
27. Mezher, T. M. and Tawil, W., (1998). Causes of delays in the construction industry in Lebanon, Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, Vol.5, 252-260.
28. Porwal, A. and Hewage, K. N., (2013). Building Information Modelling (BIM) partnering framework for public construction projects, Automation in Construction, Vol.31, 204-214.
29. Braimah, N., (2008). An investigation into the use of construction delay and disruption analysis methodologies.
30. Sambasivan, M. and Soon, Y. W., (2007). Causes and effects of delays in Malaysian construction industry, International Journal of project management, Vol. 25, 517-526.
31. Ndekugri, I., Braimah, N. and Gameson, R., (2008). Delay analysis within construction contracting organizations, Journal of construction engineering and management, Vol.134, 692-700.
32. Menesi, W., (2007). Construction delay analysis under multiple baseline updates, University of Waterloo.
33. Suermann, P. C. and Issa, R. R., (2009). Evaluating industry perceptions of building information modelling (BIM) impact on construction, Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon), Vol.14, 574-594.
34. Park, C. S., Lee, D. Y., Kwon, O. S. and Wang, X., (2013). A framework for proactive construction defect management using BIM, augmented reality and ontology-based data collection template, Automation in Construction, Vol.33, 61-71.
35. Sun, M., Sexton, M., Aouad, G., Fleming, A., Senaratne, S. and Anumba , C., (2004). Managing changes in construction projects, EPSRC Industrial Report, 185-190.
36. Khameneh, A., (2009).Study of the change management process in power plant projects, The first National Conference on Project Implementation in the EPC method, Tehran.
37. Rabun, J. and Blackmore, R., (1996). History of Interior Design and Furniture: From Ancient Egypt to Nineteenth-Century Europe. Canada, Ed: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.