Effect of Sea Water on the Quaternary Cement Concrete

Document Type : Original Article


1 Associate Professor, School of Engineering and Technology, The NorthCap University, Gurugram, Haryana, IndiaThe NorthCap University

2 MSc. student, School of Engineering and Technology, The NorthCap University, Gurugram, Haryana, India



Most of the buildings are made of concrete; hence, the consumption of cement, freshwater, river sand, and coarse aggregate has increased, leading to environmental pollution and natural source depletion. The percentage of the ocean on the Earth’s surface is 71%. Hence seawater is available in abundance. If the freshwater is replaced by seawater, there would be sustainable development in the construction industry. In this study influence of the composition of Portland cement - fuel ash - metakaolin – silica fume binders partially mixed with seawater on the strength and durability of the concrete have been investigated. The percentage of replacement of freshwater by seawater was 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 100%. The effects of concrete mixing with seawater on compressive strength and its durability were studied.


1- Damtoft J. S., Lukasik, J., Herfort, D., and Gartner EM, M. E., 2008, Sustainable development and climate change initiatives, Cement and Concrete Research, 38, 2, 115–127.
2- Githachuri, K., and Alexander, M., 2013, Durability performance potential and strength of blended Portland limestone cement concrete, Cement and Concrete Compose, 39, 115–121.
3- Kaur, G., Singh, S. P., and Kaushik, S. K., 2012, reviewing some properties of concrete containing mineral admixtures, Indian Concrete Journal, 86, 35–51.
4- Dave, N., Misra, A. K., Srivastava, A., Sharma, A. K., and Kaushik, S. K., 2018, Green quaternary concrete composites: Characterization and evaluation of the mechanical properties, Structural Concrete, 1-10.
5- Sahu, V. and Kumar, P., 2022, Potential use of treated sewage in concrete to meet water crises in Megacities, Proceedings of the ICE, Waste and Resource Management, 2022, volume 175, issue 4, 1-12, https://doi.org/10.1680/jwarm.21.00044.
6- Sabir, B. B., Bai, R. J., and Wild, S., 2003, Chloride ingress and strength loss in concrete with different PC – PFA – MK binder compositions exposed to synthetic seawater, Cement and Concrete Research, 353-362.
7- Tsay, D. S., and Jau, W. C.  A., 1998, study of the basic engineering properties of slag cement concrete and its resistance to seawater corrosion, Cement and Concrete Research, 28, 10, 1363-1371.    
8- Bahsude Gorur, E., Binici, H., Kaplan, H., Bodur, M. N., and Aksogan, O., 2008, Performance of ground blast furnace slag and ground basaltic pumice concrete against seawater attack, Construction and Building Materials, 22, 1515-1526.
9- Erniati, M., Wihadi, T., Ulva Ria, I., and Zulharnah, 2015, Porosity, pore size and compressive strength of self-compacting concrete using seawater, Procedia Engineering, 125, 832-837.
10- Haining, G., Qiu, L., Yun, H., and Zhonghe, S., 2015, Effect of metakaolin addition and seawater mixing on the properties and hydration of concrete, Applied Clay Science, 115, 51-60.
11- Changjuan, Y., Jianming, Y., and Qing, W., 2017, Effect of seawater for mixing on properties of potassium magnesium phosphate cement paste, Construction and Building Materials, 155 , 217-227.
12- Anwar, A., Rajiv, B., Satish, K., Vishakarma, S. A. A., 2018, Effect of Saline Water on concrete with partial replacement of cement with silica fume and fine aggregate with stone dust, International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 26715-26721.
13- Chuanzhou, H., Gelong, X., Qingjun, D., Weiguo, S., Xiaoli, J., Xinglei, T., Zhenjie, L., and Zhongwen, W., 2018, Behaviour of high performance concrete pastes with different mineral admixtures in simulated seawater environment, Construction and Building Materials, 187 ,426-438.
14- IS 8112, 2013, Specification for 43 grade ordinary Portland cement, Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi.
15- IS 383, 1970, Specifications for fine and coarse aggregates, Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi.
16- IS 10262, 2009, Guidelines for concrete mix design proportioning, Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi.
17- ASTM C1202, 1997, Standard test method for electrical indication of concrete’s ability to resist chloride ion penetration, Annual Book of ASTM Standards.