Energy Loss Investigation in Submarine Pipelines: Case Study of Cyprus Water Supply Project

Document Type : Original Article


1 M. Sc Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey

2 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Antalya Bilim University, Antalya, Turkey

3 Associate professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Antalya Bilim University, Antalya, Turkey

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey


Submarine pipelines have become one of the popular ways of transboundary water supply. The hydraulic design of these pipelines is of significant technical challenges for engineers as it requires a comprehensive energy loss analysis. The major portion of energy loss in a submarine pipeline is created by friction losses. Besides, many fittings and connections in the pipeline cause significant minor losses. In this study, energy loss in the submarine Cyprus water supply pipeline, the longest offshore water supply pipeline in the world, was investigated. To this end, a MATLAB script was developed to calculate both friction and minor losses. The well-known total energy loss formulae, namely, Darcy-Weisbach, Hazen-Williams, Manning, and Chezy were used and the results were compared. Our calculations showed that the highest deviation is observed for the Hazen-Williams equation comparing to the Darcy-Weisbach equation. The energy loss values obtained by Manning and Chezy equations gave similar results with the Darcy-Weisbach equation. Moreover, it was found that the friction and minor losses are approximately 95% and 5% of the total energy loss, respectively.


[1]-Gou, B., Song, S., Ghalambor, A., and Lin, T. R., 2014, Offshore Pipelines: Design, Installation, and Maintenance 2nd Ed., Gulf Professional Publishing, USA.
[2]-Tas, E., Agiralioglu, N., Mehr, A. D., and Tur, R., 2019, A Brief Review of Experimental Friction Loss Studies for Polyethylene Pipes, Proceedings of 12th International Scientific Conference on Production Engineering, Sarajevo, Bosnia, and Herzegovina.
[3]-Houghtalen, R. J., Akan, A. O., and Hwang, N. C., 2010, Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering Systems 4th Ed., Prentice Hall, USA.
[4]- Darcy, H., 1854, Sur des rechers experimentales relatives aumouvement des raux dans les tuyaux (Experimental Research on the Flow of Water in Pipes), Comptes Rendus des Seances del’Academia des Sciences, 38, 11, 1109-1121.
[5]-Weisbach, J., 1845, Lehrbuch der Ingenieur-und Maschinenmechanik (Textbook of Engineering Mechanics), Brunswick, Germany.
[6]-Colebrook, C. F., 1939, Turbulent Flow in Pipes, with Particular Reference to Transition Region Between Smooth and Rough Pipe Laws, Journal of Institution of Civil Engineers, 11, 4, 133-156.
[7]- Williams, G. S., and Hazen, A., 1933, Hydraulic Tables 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA.
[8]- Manning, R., 1891, On the Flow of Water in Open Channels and Pipes, Transaction of the Institution of Civil Engineers of Ireland, 20, 161-207.
[9]- Hydraulic Institute, 1961, Pipe Friction Manuel, Libraries of the University of Michigan.
[10]- Annan, M., and Gooda, E., 2018, Effect of Minor Losses During Steady Flow in Transmission Pipelines- Case Study “Water Transmission System Upgrade in Northern Saudi Arabia”, Alexandria Engineering Journal, 57, 4, 4299-4305.
[11]- Kamand, F. Z., 1988, Hydraulic Friction Factors for Pipe Flow,Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ASCE, 114, 2, 311-323.
[12]- Bombardelli, F. A., and Garcia, M. H., 2003, Hydraulic Design of Large-Diameter Pipes, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 129, 11, 839-846.
[13] Yoo, D. H., and Singh, V. P., 2005, Two Methods for the Computation of Commercial Pipe Friction Factor, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 131, 8, 694-704.
[14]- Wang, T., Zhu, M., Zhao, X., Zhang, Y., and Zhang, Y., 2008, Optimal Design of Long-Distance Pressure Water Delivery Pipeline System, Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology, Busan, South Korea.
[15]- Tas, E., and Agiralioglu, N., 2018, Comparison of Friction Losses in Long Polyethylene Pipe Systems Using Different Formula, Proceedings of International Symposium on Urban Water and Wastewater Management, Denizli, Turkey, 602-609.
[16]- Tian, X., Ziang, S. X., Valade, M., and Young, P., 2013, Head Loss Through Pipe Fittings for Laminar Flows, Proceedings of Pipelines 2013 Conference ASCE.
[17]- Agiralioglu, N., Mehr, A. D., Akdegirmen, Ö., and Tas, E., 2018, Cyprus Water Supply Project: Features and Outcomes, 13th International Congress on Advances in Civil Engineering, ─░zmir, Turkey.
[18]- Von Bernuth, R. D., Wilson, T., 1989, Friction Factors for Small Diameter Plastic Pipes, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 115, 2, 183-192.
[19]- Bagarello, V., Ferro, V., Provenzano, G., and Pumo, D., 1995, Experimental Study on Flow Resistance Law for Small Diameter Plastic Pipes, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ASCE, 121, 5, 313-316.
[20]- Moghazi, H. E. M., 1998, Estimating Hazen-Williams Coefficient for Polyethylene Pipes, Journal of Transportation Engineering, ASCE, 124, 2, 197-199.
[21]- Diogo, A. F., and Vilela, F. A., 2014, Head Losses and Friction Factors of Steady Turbulent Flow in Plastic Pipes, Urban Water Journal, 11, 5, 414-425.