Application of Eco-Friendly Geopolymer Composite in Wastewater Treatment

Document Type : Original Article

Author

Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

10.30469/arce.2022.150295

Abstract

Seeing as heavy metal pollution from industrial activities and technological development is a serious threat to the environment due to their toxicity, biodegradability, and bioaccumulation, heavy metal removal from wastewater is one of the most important stages of industrial and municipal wastewater treatment. In the previous 150 years, the worldwide amount of metal pollution has increased by more than 4,000 times. Heavy metals, whether in the form of metallic elements or organic materials, can have a substantial impact on human society's health. Adsorption is a process that can be utilized in wastewater treatment that is environmentally friendly. However, the use of known and expensive adsorbents such as activated carbon has prompted researchers to look for acceptable alternatives. Much research has been done on the physical and chemical properties of geopolymers for use in the treatment of heavy metals as an alternative to activated carbon. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the adsorption of heavy metals using geopolymers.

[1]- Fu, F., and Wang, Q., 2011, Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: a review, Journal of environmental management, 92(3), 407-418.‏
[2]- Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., 2003, Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Reuse, 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.
 [3]- Javadian, H., Ghorbani, F., Tayebi, H. A., and Asl, S. H., 2015, Study of the adsorption of Cd (II) from aqueous solution using zeolite-based geopolymer, synthesized from coal fly ash; kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies, Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 8(6), 837-849.‏
[4]- Salam, O. E. A., Reiad, N. A., and ElShafei, M. M., 2011, A study of the removal characteristics of heavy metals from wastewater by low-cost adsorbents, Journal of Advanced Research, 2(4), 297-303.‏
[5]- Wang, S., Li, L., and Zhu, Z. H., 2007, Solid-state conversion of fly ash to effective adsorbents for Cu removal from wastewater, Journal of hazardous materials, 139(2), 254-259.‏
[6]- Lee, C. G., Song, M. K., Ryu, J. C., Park, C., Choi, J. W., and Lee, S. H., 2016, Application of carbon foam for heavy metal removal from industrial plating wastewater and toxicity evaluation of the adsorbent, Chemosphere, 153, 1-9.‏
[7]- Minju Jo, Linoshka Soto, Marleisa Arocho, Juliana St John, Sangchul Hwang, 2015, Optimum mix design of fly ash geopolymer paste and its use in pervious concrete for removal of fecal coliforms and phosphorus in water, Construction and Building Materials, 93, 1097-1104.
 [8]- Esparham, A., and Moradikhou, A. B., 2021, A Novel Type of Alkaline Activator for Geopolymer Concrete Based on Metakaolin, Journal of civil Engineering and Materials Application, 5(2), 14-32.‏
[9]- Gharzouni, A., Vidal, L., Essaidi, N., Joussein, E., and Rossignol, S., 2016, Recycling of geopolymer waste: Influence on geopolymer formation and mechanical properties, Materials & Design. 94. 10.1016/j.matdes.2016.01.043.
[10]- Ahmaruzzaman M., 2011, Industrial wastes as low-cost potential adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater laden with heavy metals, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 166, 36-59.
[11]- Abas, S. N. A., Ismail, M. H. S., Kamal, M. L. and Izhar, S., 2013, Adsorption process of heavy metals by low-cost adsorbent: A review, World Application of Science Journal, 28, 1518–1530.
[12]- Motsi, T., Rowson, N. A. and Simmons, M. J. H., 2009, Adsorption of Heavy Metals from Acid Mine Drainage by Natural Zeolite, International Journal of Mineral Processing, 92, 42-48.
[13]- Liu, H. H., and Sang, S. H., 2010, Study on the law of heavy metal leaching in municipal solid waste landfill, Environment Monitoring Assessment, 165, 349–363.
[14]- Phair, J. W., Van Deventer, J. S. J., and Smith, J. D., 2004, Effect of Al source and alkali activation on Pb and Cu immobilisation in fly-ash based “geopolymers, Applied Geochemistry, 19(3), 423-434.‏
[15]-  Waijarean, N., Asavapisit, S., and Sombatsompop, K., 2014, Strength and microstructure of water treatment residue-based geopolymers containing heavy metals, Construction and Building Materials, 50, 486-491.‏
[16]- Nikolić, V., Komljenović, M., Baščarević, Z., Marjanović, N., Miladinović, Z., and Petrović, R., 2015, The influence of fly ash characteristics and reaction conditions on strength and structure of geopolymers, Construction and Building materials, 94, 361-370.‏
[17]-  Ge, Y., Yuan, Y., Wang, K., He, Y., and Cui, X., 2015, Preparation of geopolymer-based inorganic membrane for removing Ni2+ from wastewater, Journal of hazardous materials, 299, 711-718.‏
[18]- Al-Zboon, K., Al-Harahsheh, M. S., and Hani, F. B., 2011, Fly ash-based geopolymer for Pb removal from aqueous solution, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 188(1-3), 414-421.‏
[19]- Luukkonen, T., Sarkkinen, M., Kemppainen, K., Rämö, J., and Lassi, U., 2016, Metakaolin geopolymer characterization and application for ammonium removal from model solutions and landfill leachate, Applied Clay Science, 119, 266-276.‏
[20]- Andrejkovičová, S., Sudagar, A., Rocha, J., Patinha, C., Hajjaji, W., da Silva, E. F., and Rocha, F., 2016, The effect of natural zeolite on microstructure, mechanical and heavy metals adsorption properties of metakaolin based geopolymers, Applied Clay Science, 126, 141-152.‏
[21]- Esparham, A., Moradikhou, A. B., and Mehrdadi, N., 2020, Introduction to synthesise method of Geopolymer concrete and corresponding properties, Journal of Iranian Ceramic Society, 4(64), 13-24.‏
[22]- Esparham, A., Moradikhou, A. B., and Jamshidi Avanaki, M., 2020, Effect of various alkaline activator solutions on compressive strength of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete, Journal of civil Engineering and Materials Application, 4(2), 115-123.
[23]- Esparham, A., and Moradikhou, A. B., 2021, Factors Influencing Compressive Strength of Fly Ash-based Geopolymer Concrete, Amirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering, 53(3), 21-31.‏
[24]- Esparham, A., Moradikhou, A. B., Andalib, F. K., and Avanaki, M. J., 2021, Strength characteristics of granulated ground blast furnace slag-based geopolymer concrete, Advances in concrete construction, 11(3), 219-229.‏
[25]-Esparham, A., and Moradikhou, A. B., 2021, A Novel Type of Alkaline Activator for Geopolymer Concrete Based on Class C Fly Ash, Advance Researches in Civil Engineering, 3(1), 1-13.‏
[26]- Esparham, A., 2020, Factors Influencing Compressive Strength of Metakaolin-based Geopolymer Concrete, Modares Civil Engineering journal, 20(1), 120-135.‏
[27]- Moradikhou, A. B., Esparham, A., and Avanaki, M. J., 2019, Effect of Hybrid Fibers on Water absorption and Mechanical Strengths of Geopolymer Concrete based on Blast Furnace Slag, Journal of civil Engineering and Materials Application, 3(4), 195-211.‏
[28]- Esparham, A., and Moradikhou, A. B., 2021, Factors Influencing Compressive Strength of Fly Ash-based Geopolymer Concrete, Amirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering, 53(3), 21-35.‏
[29]- Esparham, A., Hosseni, M. H., Mousavi Kashi, A., Emami, F., and Moradikhou, A. B., 2020, Impact of Replacing Kaolinite with Slag, Fly Ash and Zeolite on the Mechanical Strengths of Geopolymer Concrete Based on Kaolinite, Building Engineering & Housing Science, 13(24), 9-15.‏
[30]- Hosseini, M. H., Mousavi Kashi, A., Emami, F., and Esparham, A., 2020, Effect of Simple and Hybrid Polymer Fibers on Mechanical Strengths and High-temperature Resistance of Metakaolin-based Geopolymer Concrete, Modares Civil Engineering journal, 20(2), 147-161.‏
 [31] Esparham, A., 2021, Investigation of the Effects of Nano Silica Particles and Zeolite on the Mechanical Strengths of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer Concrete, International Journal of Innovation in Engineering, 1(4), 82-95.
[32]- Yao, Z. T., Ji, X. S., Sarker, P. K., Tang, J. H., Ge, L. Q., Xia, M. S., and Xi, Y. Q., 2015, A comprehensive review on the applications of coal fly ash, Earth-Science Reviews, 141, 105-121.‏
[33]- Li, L., Wang, S., and Zhu, Z., 2006, Geopolymeric adsorbents from fly ash for dye removal from aqueous solution, Journal of colloid and interface science, 300(1), 52-59.‏
[34]- Albadarin, A. B., Mangwandi, C., Ala’a, H., Walker, G. M., Allen, S. J., and Ahmad, M. N., 2012, Kinetic and thermodynamics of chromium ions adsorption onto low-cost dolomite adsorbent, Chemical Engineering Journal, 179, 193-202.‏
[35]- Lim, A. P., and Aris, A. Z., 2014, A review on economically adsorbents on heavy metals removal in water and wastewater, Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 13(2), 163-181.‏
[36]- Van Jaarsveld, J. G. S., Van Deventer, J. S., and Lukey, G. C., 2002, The effect of composition and temperature on the properties of fly ash-and kaolinite-based geopolymers, Chemical Engineering Journal, 89(1-3), 63-73.‏